A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire by M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed amazing ethnic and cultural variety one of the expected thirty million humans dwelling inside of its borders. It used to be probably the main cosmopolitan nation within the world--and in all likelihood the main risky. a short background of the overdue Ottoman Empire now provides students and normal readers a concise historical past of the past due empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked by means of significant social swap. relocating prior common remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes extensive historic traits and tactics greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and international powers. He appears heavily on the socioeconomic adjustments this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu indicates how this background is not just necessary to comprehending glossy Turkey, yet is necessary to the histories of Europe and the realm. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to lifestyles in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial data and different files from the interval to explain it because it really used to be, now not because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a short historical past of the past due Ottoman Empire is a must-read for a person looking to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the realm nonetheless grapples with this present day.

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He furnished an election document, dated 1795, and promised to raise a 35,000-man army and collect the poll tax on behalf of the central government. 33 Even in the central provinces of Anatolia and Rumelia, imperial control was far from effective. Two social groups in particular gained considerable power vis-à-vis the state: local dynasts and notables. In many regions, local dynasts became so powerful that they exercised feudal control over large areas. Contemporaries termed such leaders “Mütegallibe,” meaning usurpers or oppressors.

The most prevalent drawback of this basic principle was that it made budgets enormously sensitive to the annual vicissitudes of production. 50 Renewal of state licenses and certificates under the new sultan’s name eventually covered part of the accession costs, but failure to grant these traditional gifts on time often resulted in Janissary revolts. 51 But this practice naturally led producers to cut supplies, lower quality, or even abandon the production of goods needed by the state. Inefficient purchasing by the state was only one of an array of factors working against the Ottoman manufacturing sector in the eighteenth century.

21 BOA-BEO/ file 353914 [February 6, 1912]. ” See Tarih-i Cevdet, 2, p. 148. indd 13 8/23/2007 8:15:57 PM 14 Chapter One Figure 3. An Ottoman sketch dated January 23, 1818, depicting how the Shaqrā’ fortress fell to the Ottoman-Egyptian expeditionary force during the campaign against the Wahhābīs. BOA, HH. 19533 (1818). 23 In much of the rest of the empire, we find a pattern of strong governors compelling the central government to grant them various degrees of autonomy. In Baghdad, successive governors appointed an ever-growing number of slaves (Mamluks) imported in this case from Georgia, to important positions in government.

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