A system of physical chemistry by Ramsay W., Donnan F.G.

By Ramsay W., Donnan F.G.

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The phosphate group may be bonded to the C3′ or C5′ of a pentose to form its 3′-nucleotide or its 5′-nucleotide respectively. In nucleic acids, the purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleotides serve solely as information symbols for the coding of genetic information. Pyrimidines and purines are characterized by being capable of tautomerism, a phenomenon dependent on ionization whereby the proton becomes attached to one of the interconvertable structures referred to as tautomers. Tautomers can be separated one from the other at low temperature where the rate of interconversion is low.

Only the electrons change location in the contributors that make up the hybrid. • Resonance is a stabilizing factor. The hybrid of resonance structures (resonance hybrid) is usually more stable than any of its contributing forms by an amount called the resonance energy. The closer the stability of the contributing forms the greater the resonance energy of the hybrid. • The number of unpaired electrons must remain the same in all contributors. Resonance and tautomerism are closely related. Thus the acidity of carbon-bound hydrogen in ketones, which allows formation of enol tautomers, is a direct result of the fact that the enolate anion produced by dissociation of one of these hydrogen atoms is stabilized by resonance.

N. (1973) Quarterly Review of Biophysics, 6, 341–87. A. and McFherson, A. (eds) (1984) Biological Macromolecules and Assemblies. , New York. Klyne, W. and Prelog, V. (1960) Experientia, 16, 521–23. Korte, F. and Goto, M. (eds) (1976) Nucleic Acids, Proteins and Carbohydrates, Academic Press, New York. Muller, N. (1990) Account Chemistry Research, 23, 23–8. C. L. (1971) Annual Review of Physical Chemistry, 22, 347–85. L. J. (1988) Pure Applied Chemistry, 61: 1097–1104. 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Sheeham, D.

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