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Extra resources for Advances in Chemical Physics: Aspects of the Study of Surfaces, Volume 27
Photoemission and Auger emission) based on the existing LEED theory. When this is accomplished, the parameters obtained from emission and scattering ex- SURFACE PROPERTIES BY LEED 35 periments can be combined into a single unified mathematical model. It is difficult to believe that this task will long remain undone. Finally, LEED is convenient but tends to be destructive to fragile adsorption and organic systems. It is readily compatible with Auger spectroscopy (for the determination of the surface atomic composition) and photoemission or ion neutralization spectroscopy (for the measurement of the electronic ground-state parameters to supplement the surface excitation spectra obtained via inelastic LEED).
The two experimental arrangements that have been used to achieve this goal are indicated schematically in Fig. 6. The more common of the two, referred to as “low-energy electron diffraction” (LEED), consists of using electrons in the desired energy range incident nearly normal to the target. The theory underlying the use of this technique for surface structure determination is the main topic of subsequent sections in this chapter. Less commonly used is “reflection high-energy electron diffraction” (RHEED).
Moreover, we found in (2) and (4) that electrons of a given energy exhibit much larger cross-sections (a- 10- l6 cm2) for low-energy valence-electron excitation than for core-electron impact ionization. We see, therefore, that the selection of the means to use in exciting Auger spectra depends on the requirements of sensitivity, signal-to-background ratio, and nondestructiveness imposed on the experiment under consideration. lZ7 cause low-energy side bands associated with the prominent Auger lines; the absence of an adequate description of the multiplet fine structure of both the initial core hole and final pair of core holes66*67,69; the occurrence of Coster-Kronig transitions that modify the initial distribution of core holes prior to the Auger event62963; and the angular dependence of the cross-sections involved in the excitation and emission p r o c e s ~ e s .