Advances in Giardia Research by Peter Malcolm Wallis, Brian R. Hammond

By Peter Malcolm Wallis, Brian R. Hammond

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These properties become of medical significance when they involve such characteristics as pathogenicity, antigenicity, drug resistance, and environmental survival.  No one, however, has suggested the presence of Shigella endosymbionts as contributing to prolongation of diarrhea.  flexneri plasmid is presently known to be involved in its invasion of HeLa cells (10).  Rowbotham (18) has suggested that Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are possible natural hosts for Legionella; he suggests even more importantly that infected amoebae or vesicles containing bacteria could be the infective particle for Legionella infection of humans.

We have also recently demonstrated that Giardia cysts, formed in vitro, were capable of undergoing excystation and were able to produce infection in an animal model (17). Therefore, Giardia cysts formed in vitro have fulfilled all of the criteria currently being used to measure cyst viability.  The development of this in vitro model of the life cycle of Giardia should facilitate the testing of Kochs' postulates, since it will now be possible not only to isolate trophozoites from an animal and grow them in culture, but also to produce cysts in vitro, which could be used to reinfect the same (or possibly a different) type of host.

Hence, the capacity of a strain to produce CPE in tissue culture system may relate to its pathogenicity in vitro.  However, the cell membrane of the cells surrounded by parasites was continous indicating that the parasite did not penetrate the membrane and produced the cell damage just by attaching to the surface of the cells.  vaginalis (6).  Future studies on the localization of the parasite enzymes on the plasma membrane and the molecular mechanisms of the Page 36 Figure 3.  Branched filamentous processes and rufflings on the surface can be seen clearly (original magnification × 1250) with the surface of fibroblasts (original magnification × 1250).

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