Advances in Mechatronics by H. Martinez-Alfaro

By H. Martinez-Alfaro

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In some cases, eye blinking artifacts may be useful and are required as a parameter for activating a system. Integrating Neural Signal and Embedded System for Controlling Small Motor 33 In EEG signals, eye blinks occur as peaks with relatively strong voltages. Eye blinks can be classified as short blinks if the duration of blink is less than 200ms or long blinks if it is greater or equal to 200ms [Bulling et al, 2006]. The amplitude of the peaks varies between different subjects. They are often located by setting a threshold in EEG and classified for all activity exceeding the threshold value.

In this arrangement, a reference and ground electrodes are placed either on the ear lobe or mastoid. As mentioned previously, the recorded EEG signals contain artefacts which have to be removed in order to obtain good morphological signals. Once a clean EEG signal is obtained, the second stage is to amplify the signal. EEG signal amplitude obtained from the scalp is very small, range up to 100mV which is difficult to see without amplification. The signal also has low frequency. It is necessary to analyse the signal to examine the Integrating Neural Signal and Embedded System for Controlling Small Motor 35 characteristics of the signal and to ensure the noise has been removed.

Figure 2 shows EEG signal with eye closure and eye opening. The negative amplitude shows the eyelids closure and positive value shows the opening of eyelids. Fig. 1. Normal EEG signal when a person is relax. Fig. 2. Normal EEG signal with eye closure and eye opening. The recorded EEG signals always contain artifacts which impede the analysis of the signals. The artifacts include muscle signals, heart signals, eye movements, power line interference, eye blinks and others. Artifacts in EEG signals typically are characterized by high amplitudes.

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