By Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg (auth.), Norman M. Edelstein, James D. Navratil, Wallace W. Schulz (eds.)
The papers integrated during this quantity have been offered on the symposium on "Americium and Curium Chemistry and expertise" on the foreign Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies in Honolulu, Hawaii, December 16-21, 1984. This symposium venerated 40 years of study on americium and curium. as a result, the papers integrated during this quantity start with historic views at the discovery of americium and curium and the early characterization in their chemical homes, after which conceal a variety of topics, similar to thermodynamic houses, digital constitution, nuclear reactions, analytic chemistry, excessive strain part transitions, and technological elements. hence, this quantity is a overview of the chemistry of americium and curium, and gives a point of view at the present study on those components 40 years after their discovery. The editors wish to thank the individuals during this symposium for his or her contributions. it's a excitement to recognize the help of Ms. Barbara Moriguchi in dealing with the executive elements of the symposium and of the creation of this quantity. April 2, 1985 Norman M. Edelstein fabrics and Molecular study department Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory collage of California Berkeley, California 94720, U.S.A. James D. Navratil Rockwell foreign Rocky residences Plant P.O. field 464 Golden, Colorado 80402-0464, U.S.A. Wallace W. Schulz Rockwell Hanford P.O. field 800 Richland, Washington 99352, U.S.A.
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Extra info for Americium and Curium Chemistry and Technology: Papers from a Symposium given at the 1984 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Honolulu, HI, December 16–27, 1984
28 R. A. PENN EM AN Los Alamos work began to focus on the new americium chemistry itself by 1950. It followed the pioneer work on americium which Cunningham, Werner and Perlman had provided in the half-dozen years following its discovery. We had an enormous advantage over the earlier workers in that, once we had it isolated, we could work with americium on the many milligram scale, utilizing spectrophotometry to ascertain americium valence states in millimolar solutions. Thus, we could rather quickly disp·el the notion that americium had an attainable divalent state by observing that the trivalent absorption persisted in spite of reducing agents that yielded both europium(II) and samarium(II).
In those studies. tetravalent americium was demonstrated in the dioxide, pentavalent americium as the potassium carbonate salt of unknown composition. Of course, trivalent americium was demonstrated to be a very stable aqueous ion. This was the status of americium chemistry when the Los Alamos work began. All of it was found to be correct. However. from the early tracer studies, and reinforced by the location of americium in the new actinide series as a homolog of europium. it was believed (erroneously) that americium also possessed an attainable aqueous divalent state.
They include the first major isolation of americium from impure plutonium, and significant expansion of americium chemistry. The discovery of americium was made in 1944, as just recounted in the first paper of this session by one of the discoverers, Glenn T. Seaborg. The discovery was made at the Metallurgical Laboratory of the University of Chicago. The Metallurgical Laboratory (later it became the Argonne National Laboratory) had been established as a result of wartime urgency in response to December 1941 urgings of Nobel Laureate Arthur Compton.